The climatology of tornadoes in Europe (map)

Europe faces more and more tornado episodes, a conclusion based in various reasons. Their climatology in Europe presents a specific interest.


A study published in 2014 used data of tornadoes over Europe during 1950-2013 in order to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of this phenomenon.

The entire study of Groenemeijer and Kuhne (2014)may be read HERE.

One of the conclusions of this study is that the maximum frequency of tornadoes, but also of the severest ones, occurs in central Europe focusing on north-northwest Germany and north France.

In a daily basis, land tornadoes mostly appear between 15:00 and 17:00 local time, while the less frequency is exhibited between 23:00 and 07:00. In contrast, waterspouts mostly occur in the morning (09:00-10:00).

The following map (adopted by the aforementioned study) presents the month with the maximum frequency (in average) of tornadoes in Europe. It is fairly clear that tornadoes mostly occur during summertime in northern Europe and during autumn/wintertime in southern countries.

Four of the most fatal tornadoes are the following:

1. In Montville of France on 19/8/1845 (70 deaths)

2. In Ivanovo of Russia on 9/6/1984 (69 deaths)

3. In Madrid of Spain on 12/5/1886 (47 deaths)

4. In Sava of Italy on 21/9/1897 (40 deaths).




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